Review Of Research On The Effects Of Food Promotion To Children Ielts Reading Answers With Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice cùng với passage Đánh Giá Of Retìm kiếm On The Effects Of Food Promotion To Children được lấy từ cuốn nắn sách IELTS Actual Test 3 - Test 1 - Passage 1 với đề nghị thi IELTS bên trên máy và phân tích và lý giải đáp án chi tiết bởi Linearthinking, kèm các mục tự vựng IELTS phải học tập vào bài hiểu.lg...See more


This đánh giá was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to examine the current retìm kiếm evidence on: • the extent & nature of food promotion lớn children • the effect, if any, that this promotion has on their food knowledge, preferences & behaviour.

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A. Children’s food promotion is dominated by television advertising, & the great majority of this promotes the so-called ‘Big Four’ of pre-sugared breakfast cereals, soft-drinks, confectionary và savoury snacks. In the last ten years advertising for fast food outlets has rapidly increased. There is some evidence that the dominance of television has recently begun khổng lồ wane. The importance of svào, global branding reinforces a need for multi-faceted communications combining television with merchandising, ‘tie-ins’ and point of sale activity. The advertised diet contrasts sharply with that recommended by public health advisors, & themes of fun and fantasy or taste, rather than health and nutrition, are used to promote it lớn children. Meanwhile, the recommended diet gets little promotional support.
B. There is plenty of evidence that children notice & enjoy food promotion. However, establishing whether this actually influences them is a complex problem. The Review tackled it by looking at studies that had examined possible effects on what children know about food, their food preferences, their actual food behaviour (both buying and eating), & their health outcomes (eg.obesity or cholesterol levels). The majority of studies examined food advertising, but a few examined other forms of food promotion. In terms of nutritional knowledge, food advertising seems khổng lồ have little influence on children’s general perceptions of what constitutes a healthy diet, but, in certain contexts, it does have sầu an effect on more specific types of nutritional knowledge. For example, seeing soft drink & cereal adverts reduced primary aged children’s ability lớn determine correctly whether or not certain products contained real fruit.
C. The Đánh Giá also found evidence that food promotion influences children’s food preferences & their purchase behaviour. A study of primary school children, for instance, found that exposure khổng lồ advertising influenced which foods they claimed to like; and another showed that labelling & signage on a vending machine had an effect on what was bought by secondary school pupils. A number of studies have also shown that food advertising can influence what children eat. One, for example, showed that advertising influenced a primary class’s choice of daily snachồng at playtime.

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D. The next step, of trying khổng lồ establish whether or not a link exists between food promotion and diet or obesity, is extremely difficult as it requires research to lớn be done in real world settings. A number of studies have attempted this by using amount of television viewing as a proxy for exposure to lớn television advertising. They have established a clear liên kết between television viewing & diet, obesity, and cholesterol levels. It is impossible to say, however, whether this effect is caused by the advertising, the sedentary nature of television viewing or snacking that might take place whilst viewing. One study resolved this problem by taking a detailed diary of children’s viewing habits. This showed that the more food adverts they saw, the more snacks và calories they consumed.
E. Thus the literature does suggest food promotion is influencing children’s diet in a number of ways. This does not amount to proof; as noted above sầu with this kind of research, incontrovertible proof simply isn’t attainable. Nor bởi vì all studies point lớn this conclusion; several have sầu not found an effect. In addition, very few studies have attempted lớn measure how strong these effects are relative to lớn other factors influencing children’s food choices. Nonetheless, many studies have found clear effects and they have used sophisticated that make it possible to determine that i) these effects are not just due to lớn chance; ii) they are independent of other factors that may influence diet, such as parents’ eating habits or attitudes; and iii) they occur at a brand and category cấp độ.
F. Furthermore, two factors suggest that these findings actually downplay the effect that food promotion has on children. First, the literature focuses principally on television advertising; the cumulative effect of this combined with other forms of promotion và kinh doanh is likely lớn be significantly greater. Second, the studies have looked at direct effects on individual children, và understate indirect influences. For example, promotion for fast food outlets may not only influence the child, but also encourage parents to lớn take them for meals & reinforce the idea that this is a normal & desirable behaviour.
G. This does not amount to lớn proof of an effect, but in our view does provide sufficient evidence lớn conclude that an effect exists. The debate should now shift lớn what action is needed, & specifically to how the power of commercial sale can be used lớn bring about improvements in young people’s eating.